How many meals and snacks to eat each day?

"A good diet is important for good health. Eating a variety of foods can help you manage your weight, improve general wellbeing and reduce the risk of conditions including heart disease, stroke, some cancers, diabetes and osteoporosis. All you need to do is eat sensibly, choosing a range of foods in the correct proportions.

So I suggest between 4-6 meals/snacks every day.


May I need nutritional supplements?

What are dietary supplements?
Dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes (see box at right). Dietary supplements are also marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, and gelcaps. While some dietary supplements are fairly well understood, others need further study.

What are the benefits of dietary supplements?
Some supplements may help to assure that you get an adequate dietary intake of essential nutrients. However, supplements should not replace the variety of foods that are important to a healthful diet — so, be sure you eat a variety of foods as well.
Unlike drugs, supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. That means supplements should not make claims, such as "reduces arthritic pain" or "treats heart disease." Claims like these can only legitimately be made for drugs, not dietary supplements.

Who should take multi-vitaminics-minerals supplements?
Smokers may benefit from B vitamins, vitamin C.  Those are all your water soluble vitamins  that.  Smokers may have increased needs for  those. But never taking mega doses of those. 
Chronic alcoholics have multiple, nutritional issues, often times.  Both because they're replacing food with alcohol. But also some of the impacts on the body,  in terms of increasing nutrient need, diminished absorption and other issues. So again, it's many of the water soluble vitamins with that group. 
Individuals with restricted or limited diets, and this is sometimes where my  college students, find, fall, is that they don't eat enough calories. To really meet all their needs. And in those cases a multispectrum, a multivite mineral supplement may be warranted.  Vegetarians often times supplementation  is warranted.  But it really depends on how strict that vegetarian is. Many vegetarians include, you know, milk products, dairy products, eggs and get some of these nutrients through those animal foods. But vegans, individuals that exclude all animal foods will definitely need either a supplemental form of B12 or purchasing 
foods that are fortified in B12, because vitamin B12 is only found in foods of animal origin. And depended on their intake, they may need some other vitamins. Vitamin D, because it's often found in milk products, they may need supplemental  D. So again, with vegetarians, and we'll talk about this under the plant based diets session in more detail. But, supplementation in vegetarians is again kind of contingent on how strict they are. When you look at individuals that have limited milk intake or limited sun exposure, that may be an indication for vitamin D, for calcium. 
People that are lactose intolerant may be  omitting many of the dairy foods and would need calcium and vitamin D through other sources. 
Older adults have a spectrum, again of potential needs based on maybe diminished 
intake, but also decreased utilization and absorption of nutrients. In particular things like calcium, vitamin D and certain B vitamins, 
People that have a health condition that effects how their body utilizes or absorbs nutrients, and those individuals would need a supplement that would kind of match up with their issues in regards to that absorption and utilization. 
Individuals that have compromised immune function may benefit just to help bolster their overall immune response. To make sure they're getting in adequate nutrition, adequate nutrients across the spectrum. 
Some infants may benefit from supplementation. Breast milk is low in vitamin D, but I 
mean, cows milk is fortified with it. It's not a natural vitamin D source. But, breast milk is low in vitamin D and so, you know, after a few months, particularly if there's limited any sun exposure. 


Food and Nutrition Labeling

Helps consumers...
...understand links betweens diet and health
...see how individual foods contribute to daily nutritional needs
...choose more healthy food

Incentive for companies...
...to improve the nutritional qualities os their product
...marketing opportunity

The label must be...
...clear and easy to read
...easy visible
...not misleading

The ingredient list...
...all the ingredients must be listed in descending order of amount present, so the ingredient with greatest proportion os product's weight is listed first.

Why food additives?
...to maintain or improve safety and freshness of the food (e.g. antioxidants as preservative)
...to improve or maintain nutritional value (e.g. vitamin add to food)
...to improve taste, texture and appearance (e.g. colours)


Supermarket shopping

No matter what the goal of our shopping trip, the supermarket has been designed to make us buy more than we came to buy. And to make us consider buying the most expensive versions of those items.

The more processed a food is, the more a company can charge for the final product. So, even within the processed food aisles, the heavily processed versions of a food will be placed at eye level, and will be easier for us to reach. For example, if you go to the baking aisle, the cake mixes and ready-made frostings will be easier to reach than the less processed baking goods, which are also less expensive. 

If you look at foods specifically marketed to young children, they'll be placed at two levels. One is low down at the level of a typical three year-old and the other is exactly at the level of a child who's sitting in a shopping cart. So that's just the low shoulder level for an average height adult. So, highly processed food aimed to appeal to children, is also going to be easy for them to see, and easy for them to ask for.

Then, a lot of research has gone into the music that's played in a supermarket throughout the day. There's evidence suggesting that instrumental music with a slow tempo actually slows down the flow of traffic in the store, and this increases the daily sales volume of the supermarket.

Some stores even use artificial aromas that are released by machines designed to deliver a constant smell of things like freshly baked bread in the bakery section. There's evidence to suggest that these scents make customers hungrier, and in this way, they increase sales.

Now, one easy rule to follow in the supermarket is, in general, try to stick to the periphery of the store, where fresh whole foods, like fruits and vegetables, eggs, meat, and dairy products, are usually displayed. If possible, try and make a shopping list before you go to the store, and, when you're there, try to stick to that list. And finally, try not to go shopping when you are hungry, because if you enter the supermarket hungry, you are much more likely to be tempted by the unhealthy, high calorie and highly processed foods.

learn more with http://justcookforkids.com/


My big and healthy breakfast

Just mix a cup of low fat and plain flavour yogurt, fresh fruit (pear and banana), nuts (hazelnuts and brazil nuts) and seeds (pumpkin seeds and linseeds).


Portuguese Fish and Chips

  1. Peel the potatoes and cut into whatever size you prefer. Wash well in cold water, drain and pat dry with a clean tea towel. Put the potatoes into the fryer and allow them to fry gently for about 8-10 minutes, until they are soft but still pale. Check they're cooked by piercing with a small, sharp knife. Lift out of the pan and leave to cool slightly on greaseproof paper. 
  2. Increase the heat of the fryer.
  3. I used salted cod, traditional in Portugal, where I'm from. Cut in small pieces and dust lightly with egg and then in the flour.
  4. Carefully place in the hot fat and cook for 8-10 minutes until golden and crispy. Remove from the pan, drain and sit on a baking sheet lined with greaseproof paper. (This cod is already salted so I didn't use any salt extra).
  5. Once the fish is cooked, return the chips to the fryer and cook for 2-3 minutes or until golden and crispy. Shake off any excess fat and season with salt (or seasoning) before serving with the crispy fish. If liked, you can serve with tinned boiled peas (as I did) for the authentic experience!


Converting to Metric

Viver noutro país tem me levado a re-aprender uma série de coisas... e o facto de alguém me dizer "este mês engordei um pound" confesso que me deixa simplesmente à toa. 

Cábulas e mais cábulas... partilho com quem quiser...

Cup to ml
1/4 cup = 60 ml
1/3 cup = 80 ml
1/2 cup = 125 ml
1 cup = 250 mI1/4 teaspoon = 1.25 ml
Spoon to ml
1/2 teaspoon = 2.5 ml
1 teaspoon = 5 ml
1 tablespoon = 20 ml

1 fl oz
2 fl oz
3 fl oz
4 fl oz
5 fl oz
6 fl oz
8 fl oz
10 fl oz
12 fl oz
14 fl oz
15 fl oz
16 fl oz
20 fl oz (1 pint)
1/4 cup
1/2 cup
3/4 cup
1 cup
1 1/4 cups
1 1/2 cups
1 3/4 cups
2 cups
2 1/2 cups
30 ml
60 ml
100 ml
125 ml
150 ml
200 ml
250 ml
300 ml
375 ml
425 ml
475 ml
500 ml
600 ml
Massa (weight)
1/2 oz
1 oz
2 oz
3 oz
4 oz (1/4 lb)
5 oz
6 oz
7 oz
8 oz (1/2 lb)
9 oz
15 g
30 g
60 g
90 g
125 g
155 g
185 g
220 g
250 g
280 g
10 oz
11 oz
12 oz (3/4 lb)
13 oz
14 oz
15 oz
16 oz (1 lb)
24 oz (1 1/2 lb)
32 oz (2 lb)
48 oz (3 lb)
315 g
345 g
375 g
410 g
440 g
470 g
500 g (0. 5kg)
750 g
1000 g (1 kg)
1500 g (1.5kg)
Very slow
Moderately slow
Moderately hot
Very hot
The following information has been retrieved from Healthy Kids, an initiative of NSW Ministry of Health, NSW Department of Education and Communities and the Heart Foundation.  Retrieved fromhttp://www.healthykids.nsw.gov.au/recipes/conversion-chart.aspx.


European Breakfast Day

Hoje celebra-se, na Europa, o dia do pequeno-almoço - 24 de Abril.

"As famílias europeias, muitas vezes com estilos de vida agitados com deslocações, trabalho e compromissos domésticos, ficam com muito pouco tempo para se concentrarem na dieta, exercício físico e os hábitos alimentares da família.

É por isso que os membros da companha "Breakfast is Best" decidiram lançar o Dia Europeu do Pequeno-almoço, de forma a aumentar a sensibilização de todos os europeus para os benefícios do pequeno-almoço, também apoiados a nível nacional."

Para saber mais: 
http://www.breakfastisbest.eu/index.html ou http://www.breakfastisbest.eu/docs/traducao-PT.pdf


Great way to start my day - porridge breakfast

Porridge is very satisfying and good, especially when served with fruit.Made by boiling cereal meals in water, milk, or both. What's more, porridge oats are cheap to buy, and better for you than sugar-coated cereal. 

great way to start my day! 


Alcohol units and guidelines

The lower risk daily guidelines

It can be a bit tricky to understand and remember how much alcohol is in drinks, and how this can affect our health. The lower risk guidelines can help with this. All you really need to do, if you choose to drink, is to stick within the guidelines below. There’s one for women and one for men.
No one can say that drinking alcohol is absolutely safe, but by keeping within these guidelines, there’s only a low risk of causing harm in most circumstances.



Should not regularly* drink more than:
Women can have 2-3 units a day
That’s no more than a standard 175ml glass of wine (ABV 13%)
Men can have 3-4 units a day
That’s not much more than a pint of strong lager, beer or cider (ABV 5.2%)
* "Regularly" means drinking this amount most days or every day.

Counting the units

Once you’ve got the hang of the lower-risk guidelines, then check how many units are in your usual tipple. “ABV” means the percentage of alcohol in the drink and you can often find this information on the side of the bottle or can. The amount of alcohol in drinks can vary quite widely, and it’s worth looking for versions of your favourite drinks that have less alcohol , which can also be cheaper and often have less calories.

Glass of red, white or rose wine (ABV 13%)

Small 125ml
small 125ml glass = 1.6 units
Standard 175ml
standard 175ml glass = 2.3 units
Large 250ml
large 250ml glass = 3.3 units

750ml bottle of red, white or rose wine(ABV 13.5%)

10 units per bottle

Beer, lager and cider

Regular (ABV 4%)
regular lager = 1.8 unitsregular pint = 2.3 units
Strong (ABV 5.2%)
strong lager = 2.2 unitsstrong pint = 3 units
Extra strong (ABV 8%)
extra strong lager = 3.5 unitsextra strong pint = 4.5 pints

Other drinks (ABV varies)

25ml single spirit and mixer
(ABV 40%)
1 units
275ml bottle of alcopop
(ABV 5.5%)
1.5 units

check for yourself and see original file http://www.nhs.uk/change4life/pages/alcohol-lower-risk-guidelines-units.aspx